Conflict being thus rooted in envy and avarice, it follows that the path to non-conflict must be a course of relinquishment, of removing the constrictive thoughts and desires that pivot around the notions of "I" and "mine," the drives to identify and to possess. This course reaches consummation with the full maturity of wisdom, with insight into the empty, egoless nature of all phenomena; for it is this insight which exposes the hollowness of the notions of "I" and "mine" that underlie envy and avarice.
However, although the final liberation from clinging may lie far away, the path leading to it is a gradual one, growing out of simpler, more basic steps that lie very close to our feet. Two such necessary steps are changes in attitude with the power to transmute envy and avarice.
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One is altruistic joy mudita , the ability to view the success of others with the same gladness we experience at our own success. The other is generosity caga , the readiness to give and to relinquish. The former is the specific antidote for envy, the latter the antidote for avarice. What is common to both is a lifting of the sense of identity from its narrow fixation on the self, and a broadening of it to encompass others who share our desire to be happy and free from suffering.
As private individuals we cannot hope to resolve by our will the larger patterns of conflict that engulf the societies and nations to which we belong. We live in a world that thrives on conflict, and in which the forces that nurture conflict are pervasive; obstinate and terribly powerful. But as followers of the Enlightened One what we can do and must do is to testify by our conduct to the supremacy of peace: to avoid words and actions that engender animosity, to heal divisions, to demonstrate the value of harmony and concord.
The model we must emulate is that provided by the Master in his description of the true disciple: "He is one who unites the divided, who promotes friendships, enjoys concord, rejoices in concord, delights in concord, and who speaks words that promote concord. The Buddhist Publication Society is an approved charity dedicated to making known the Teaching of the Buddha, which has a vital message for people of all creeds. Is violence an individual psychological problem or a societal problem? Are we looking for a psychological profile, group dynamics or economic conditions?
When researchers study the outbreak of a disease they do not ask what is it about the individuals that made them sick. They look for a pattern of contagion — the process by which it spreads. Putting aside the wiggles and waves that reflect the crises of the day, we see that the impression that the news has become more negative over time is real. The New York Times got steadily more morose from the early s to the early s, lightened up a bit but just a bit in the s and s, and then sank into a progressively worse mood in the first decade of the new century.
News outlets in the rest of the world, too, became gloomier and gloomier from the late s to the present day. The consequences of negative news are themselves negative. Far from being better informed, heavy newswatchers can become miscalibrated. Relentless negativity can have other unintended consequences, and recently a few journalists have begun to point them out. One consequence is that many Americans today have difficulty imagining, valuing or even believing in the promise of incremental system change, which leads to a greater appetite for revolutionary, smash-the-machine change.
Is Democracy a Cause of Peace? - Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics
Media scholars who tally news stories of different kinds, or present editors with a menu of possible stories and see which they pick and how they display them, have confirmed that the gatekeepers prefer negative to positive coverage, holding the events constant. That in turn provides an easy formula for pessimists on the editorial page: make a list of all the worst things that are happening anywhere on the planet that week, and you have an impressive-sounding—but ultimately irrational—case that civilization has never faced greater peril.
During the Cold War —89 , the West German peace movement concentrated on the abolition of nuclear technology, particularly weapons, from West Germany and Europe. Most activists stridently attacked both the United States and Soviet Union. Conservative critics repeatedly warned it was infiltrated by agents from the East German secret police, the Stasi. After , the cause of peace was espoused by Green parties across Europe. It sometimes exercised significant influence over policy, e. The Israeli—Palestinian conflict and Arab—Israeli conflict have existed since the inception of Zionism , and especially since the formation of the state of Israel , and the Six-Day War.
Peace Now was founded in the aftermath of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat 's historic visit to Jerusalem, when many people felt that the chance for peace might be missed.
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PM Begin acknowledged that the Peace Now rally in Tel Aviv at the eve of his departure for the Camp David Summit with Presidents Sadat and Carter—drawing a crowd of ,, the largest peace rally in Israel until then—had a part in his decision to withdraw from Sinai and dismantle Israeli settlements there. Peace Now supported Begin for a time, and hailed him as a peace-maker, but turned against him when withdrawal from Sinai was accompanied by an accelerated campaign of land confiscation and settlement building in the West Bank.
Peace Now advocates a negotiated peace with the Palestinians. Originally this was worded vaguely, with no definition of who "the Palestinians" are and who represents them. Only in did Peace Now accept that the PLO is the body regarded by the Palestinians themselves as their representative.
During the first Intifada, Peace Now held numerous protests and rallies to protest the Israeli army and call for a negotiated withdrawal from the Palestinian territories. At the time Peace Now strongly targeted then for Defence Minister Yitzhak Rabin for his order to "break the bones of Palestinian stone-throwers". Peace Now had a central role in the November 4, rally after which Rabin was assassinated.
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Since then the annual Rabin memorial rallies, held every year at the beginning of November, have become the main event of the Israeli Peace Movement. While officially organized by the Rabin Family Foundation, Peace Now presence in these annual rallies is always conspicuous. In its present name and structure, Gush Shalom grew out of the Jewish-Arab Committee Against Deportations , which protested the deportation without trial of Palestinian Islamic activists to Lebanon in December , and erected a protest tent in front of the prime minister's office in Jerusalem for two months—until the government consented to let the deportees return.
Members then decided to continue as a general peace movement with a program strongly opposing the occupation and advocating the creation of an independent Palestine side-by-side with Israel in its pre borders "The Green Line " and with an undivided Jerusalem serving as the capital of both states.
While existing under the name Gush Shalom only since , this movement is in fact the lineal descendant of various groups, movements and action committees that espoused much the same program since , and that occupied the same space on the political scene. Ya'akov Arnon , a well-known economist who headed the Zionist Federation in the Netherlands before coming to Israel in , and was for many years director-general of the Israeli Ministry of Finance and afterwards chaired the Board of Directors of the Israeli Electricity Company; and Aryeh Eliav , who was secretary-general of the Labour Party until he broke with the then PM Golda Meir over the issue of whether or not a Palestinian People existed and had national rights.
These three and some two hundred more people became radicalised and came to the conclusion that "arrogance was a threat to Israel's future and that dialogue with the Palestinians must be opened. The bridge between the two groups was Uri Avnery , a well known muckraking journalist who had been member of the Knesset Israeli Parliament between and , at the head of his own radical one-man party.
The main achievement of the ICIPP was the opening of dialogue with the Palestine Liberation Organization PLO , with the aim of convincing the Israelis of the need to talk and reach a peace deal with the Palestinians, and conversely making Palestinians aware of the need to talk to and eventually reach a deal with Israel.
At present, Gush Shalom activists are mainly involved in daily struggle at Palestinian villages that have their land confiscated by the West Bank barrier , erected to stop suicide bombers. Gush activists are to be found, together with those of other Israeli movements like Ta'ayush and Anarchists Against the Wall , joining the Palestinian villagers of Bil'in in the weekly protest marches held to protest confiscation of more than half of the village lands. Although Gush Shalom earned itself respect among peace-seeking Israelis as well as in the United States and Europe, it is regarded by mainstream Israelis as a purely pro-Palestinian movement.
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After the Gaza War in , a group of Israeli women founded the Women Wage Peace movement with the goal of reaching a "bilaterally acceptable" political peace agreement between Israel and Palestine. From the Peace Pledge Union gained many adherents to its pledge, "I renounce war and will never support or sanction another. The peace movement was later associated with the Peace camp movement as Labour moved "more to the centre" under Prime Minister Tony Blair.
By early , the peace and anti-war movement, mostly grouped together under the banner of the Stop the War Coalition , was powerful enough to cause several of Blair's cabinet to resign, and hundreds of Labour Party MPs to vote against their government. Blair's motion to support militarily the U. Protests against the invasion of Iraq were particularly vocal in Britain. Polls suggested that without UN Security Council approval, the UK public was very much opposed to involvement, and over two million people protested in Hyde Park the previous largest demonstration in the UK having had around , The primary function of the National Peace Congress was to provide opportunities for consultation and joint activities between its affiliated members, to help create an informed public opinion on the issues of the day and to convey to the government of the day the views of the substantial section of British life represented by its affiliated membership.
During the tail end of the Cold War , U. As the Reagan administration accelerated military spending and adopted a tough, challenging stance to the Russians, peace groups such as the Nuclear Freeze and Beyond War sought to educate the public on what they believed was the inherent riskiness and ruinous cost of this policy. Outreach to individual citizens in the Soviet Union and mass meetings, using then-new satellite link technology, were part of peacemaking activities in the s.
In , Thomas started the longest uninterrupted peace vigil in U. Bush began preparations for a mideast war. Peace activists were starting to find their groove just before the Gulf War was launched in February , with well-attended rallies, especially on the west coast. However, the ground war was over in less than a week. A lopsided Allied victory and a media-incited wave of patriotic sentiment washed over the protest movement before it could develop traction.
During the s, peacemakers' priorities included seeking a solution to the Israeli—Palestinian impasse , belated efforts at humanitarian assistance to war-torn regions such as Bosnia and Rwanda, and Iraq; American peace activists brought medicine into Iraq in defiance of U.
Peace movement - Wikipedia
Some of the principal groups involved were Voices in the Wilderness and the Fellowship of Reconciliation. Before, during, and after the War in Iraq began, a concerted protest effort began in the United States. On February 15, a series of protests across the globe took place with events in approximately cities.
In March , just before the U. However, many protest organizations have persisted as the United States has maintained a military and corporate presence in Iraq. Methods of protest include rallies and marches, impeachment petitions, the staging of a war-crimes tribunal in New York to investigate crimes and alleged abuses of power of the Bush administration , bringing Iraqi women to tour the U. Independent media producers continue to broadcast, podcast and Web-host programs about the movement against the Iraq War.
Starting in , opposition to military action against Iran started in the United States, the United Kingdom and elsewhere, including the creation of the Campaign Against Sanctions and Military Intervention in Iran. They called for "the dispute about Iran's nuclear program , to be resolved through peaceful means" and a call for Israel , "as the only Middle Eastern state suspected of possession of nuclear weapons ", to join the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
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For a movement to end a specific conflict, see Anti-war movement. Social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war or all wars. Main article: Peace and Truce of God. See also: History of the anti-nuclear movement and Anti-nuclear movement. Main article: Opposition to the U.